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Toxicological information

Skin sensitisation

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Administrative data

skin sensitisation: in vivo (LLNA)
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
13 Jul - 02 Aug 2010
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP-guideline study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 429 (Skin Sensitisation: Local Lymph Node Assay)
according to guideline
EU Method B.42 (Skin Sensitisation: Local Lymph Node Assay)
according to guideline
EPA OPPTS 870.2600 (Skin Sensitisation)
GLP compliance:
Type of study:
mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA)

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Vinasses, residue of fermentation
EC Number:
Molecular formula:
Not applicable (a generic molecular formula cannot be provided for this specific UVCB substance).
Vinasses, residue of fermentation
Details on test material:
Name of test material (as cited in study report): Vinasses
- Substance type: dark brown suspension
- Physical state: liquid.
- Content: approximately 65% dry material
- Lot/batch No.: 10052614
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 26 Nov 2011
- Stability under storage conditions: stable
- Storage condition of test material: in refrigerator (2-8 °C) in the dark
- Relative density: 1.8 – 2.0
- pH: 4.5- 5.5 (100 g/l H2O, 20 °C)

In vivo test system

Test animals

other: CBA/J
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
- Source: Charles River France, L’Arbresle Cedex, France and Harlan, Horst, The Netherlands.
- Age at study initiation: young adult animals (approx. 10 weeks old)
- Weight at study initiation: 19 - 23 g
- Housing: Individual housing in labeled Macrolon cages (MI type; height 12.5 cm) containing sterilized sawdust as bedding material (Litalabo, S.P.P.S., Argenteuil, France). Paper (Enviro-dri, Wm. Lillico & Son (Wonham Mill Ltd), Surrey, United Kingdom) was supplied as cage-enrichment. The paper was removed on Day 1 prior to dosing and was supplied again after scoring of the ears on Day 3. During the acclimatization period the accommodation was as described above except that the animals were group housed in Macrolon cages (MIII type; height 18 cm).
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): free access to pelleted rodent diet (SM R/M-Z from SSNIFF® Spezialdiäten GmbH, Soest, Germany)
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): free access to tap water
- Acclimation period: the acclimatization period was at least 5 days before the start of treatment under laboratory conditions
- Health inspection: a health inspection was performed prior to treatment, to ensure that the animals are in a good state of health. Special attention was paid to the ears, which were intact and free from any abnormality.

Results of analysis for diet (nutrients and contaminants), sawdust, paper and water were assessed and did not reveal any findings that were considered to have affected the study integrity. All certificates and results of analysis are retained in the NOTOX archives.

- Temperature (°C): 21.1 - 23.2
- Humidity (%): 40 - 81
Temporary deviations from the maximum level of relative humidity occurred. Laboratory historical data do not indicate an effect of the deviations.
- Air changes (per hr): approximately 15 air changes per hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours artificial fluorescent light and 12 hours darkness per day.

IN-LIFE DATES: 13 Jul - 02 Aug 2010

Study design: in vivo (LLNA)

propylene glycol
0, 25, 50, 100%
No. of animals per dose:
Details on study design:
- Compound solubility: The vehicle was selected based on trial formulations performed at NOTOX and on test substance data
supplied by the sponsor.
- Irritation: A preliminary irritation study was conducted in order to select the highest test substance concentration to be used in the main study. In principle, this concentration should be well tolerated systemically by the animals and may give moderate irritation (maximally grade 2) at the highest concentration. Signs of irritation were recorded by assessment of erythema and oedema.
Two test substance concentrations were tested; a 100% and 50% concentration. The highest concentration was the maximum concentration as required in the test guidelines (undiluted for liquids, 50% for solids).
The test system, procedures and techniques were identical to those used during Days 1 to 3 of the main study unless otherwise specified. Two young adult animals were selected (in the range of 8 to14 weeks old; Source: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany). Each animal was treated with one concentration on three consecutive days. Approximately 3 - 4 hours after the last exposure, the irritation of the ears was assessed. Bodyweights were determined on Day 3. The animals were sacrificed after the final observation and no necropsy was performed.
- Lymph node proliferation response: Not determined in the preliminary irritation study.

- Name of test method: Local Lymph Node Assay
- Criteria used to consider a positive response: DPM values are presented for each animal and for each dose group. A Stimulation Index (SI) is calculated for each group. The SI is the ratio of the DPM/group compared to DPM/vehicle control group.
If the results indicate a SI ≥ 3, the test substance may be regarded as a skin sensitizer, based on the test guideline and recommendations done by ICCVAM (Reference 1).
The results were evaluated according to:
- Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) of the United Nations (2007),
- Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures,
- EC criteria for classification and labelling of dangerous substances and preparations (Council Directive 67/548/EEC and all adaptations to technical progress and amendments of this Directive published in the Official Journal of the European Union).
The EC3 value (the estimated test substance concentration that will give a SI =3) was determined, using linear interpolation (Reference 2).

Ref 1. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, The Murine Lymph Node Assay: A test method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals/compounds. Independent peer review by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), NIH publication; No 99-4494, February 1999.
Ref 2. Basketter DA, Lea LJ, Dickens A, Briggs, D, Pate I, Dearman RJ and Kimber I. A comparison of statistical approaches to the derivation of EC3 values from local lymph node assay dose responses. J Appl Toxicol 1999;19:261-266.

Three groups of five animals were treated with one test substance concentration per group. One group of five animals was treated with vehicle.

Test substance preparation: The test substance formulations (w/w) were prepared within 4 hours prior to each treatment. No adjustment was made for specific gravity of the vehicle. Homogeneity was obtained to visually acceptable levels.
Rationale for vehicle: The vehicle was selected based on trial formulations performed at NOTOX and on test substance data supplied by the sponsor.

Induction - Days 1, 2 and 3:
The dorsal surface of both ears was epidermally treated (25 μL/ear) with the test substance concentration, at approximately the
same time per day. The concentrations were mixed thoroughly using a vortex mixer immediately prior to dosing. The control
animals were treated the same as the experimental animals, except that the vehicle was administered instead of the test

Excision of the nodes - Day 6:
Each animal was injected via the tail vein with 0.25 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany)
containing 20 μCi of 3H-methyl thymidine (PerkinElmer Life and Analytical Sciences, Boston, MA, US). After approximately five
hours, all animals were killed by intraperitoneal injection with Euthasol® 20% (AST Farma BV, Oudewater, The Netherlands).
The draining (auricular) lymph node of each ear was excised. The relative size of the nodes (as compared to normal) was
estimated by visual examination and abnormalities of the nodes and surrounding area were recorded. The nodes were pooled
for each animal in approximately 3 mL PBS.

Tissue processing for radioactivity - Day 6:
A single cell suspension of lymph node cells (LNC) was prepared in PBS by gentle separation through stainless steel gauze
(diameter 125 μm). LNC were washed twice with an excess of PBS by centrifugation at 200g for 10 minutes at 4 ºC. To
precipitate the DNA, the LNC were exposed to 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) stored in the
refrigerator until the next day.

Radioactivity measurements - Day 7
Precipitates were recovered by centrifugation, resuspended in 1 mL TCA and transferred to 10 mL of Ultima Gold cocktail
(PerkinElmer Life and Analytical Sciences, Boston, MA, US) as the scintillation fluid. Radioactive measurements were performed
using a Packard scintillation counter (2800TR). Counting time was to a statistical precision of ± 0.2% or a maximum of 5 minutes
whichever came first. The scintillation counter was programmed to automatically subtract background and convert Counts Per
Minute (CPM) to Disintegrations Per Minute (DPM).

Mortality/Viability: Twice daily.
Toxicity: At least once daily.
Body weights: On Days 1 (pre-treatment) and 6.
Necropsy: No necropsy was performed according to protocol.
Irritation: On Day 3 (3-4 hours after treatment), the skin reactions were assessed. Skin reactions were graded according to the following numerical scoring system. Furthermore descriptions of all other (local) effects were recorded.

Grading Irritation Reactions:
Erythema and eschar formation:
0: No erythema
1: Slight erythema (barely perceptible)
2: Well-defined erythema
3: Severe erythema (beef redness) to slight eschar formation (injuries in depth)

Oedema formation:
0: No oedema
1: Slight oedema (barely perceptible)
2: Moderate oedema
3: Severe oedema

Positive control substance(s):
hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (CAS No 101-86-0)

Results and discussion

Positive control results:
The six-month reliability check with Alpha-hexylcinnamicaldehyde indicates that the Local Lymph Node Assay as performed at NOTOX is an appropriate model for testing for contact hypersensitivity in non complex substances. See attached document 'Reliability check'.

In vivo (LLNA)

Resultsopen allclose all
Test group / Remarks:
25% application
Test group / Remarks:
50% application
Test group / Remarks:
100% application

Any other information on results incl. tables

Tables and figures of the Preliminary Irritation study and Main study have been included in the attached document "LLNA tables and figures".

Results Preliminary irritation study:

No irritation and no signs of systemic toxicity were observed in any of the animals examined.

Brown remnants of the test substance were present at 100% but did not hamper scoring of the ears. Based on these results, the highest test substance concentration selected for the main study was a 100% concentration.

Other results - main study:

No irritation of the ears was observed in any of the animals examined. Brown remnants of the test substance were present at 100% but did not hamper scoring of the ears.

Most auricular lymph nodes at 100% were enlarged in size. The auricular lymph nodes at 25 and 50% were considered normal in size. No macroscopic abnormalities of the surrounding area were noted in any of the animals.

Body weights and body weight gain of experimental animals remained in the same range as controls over the study period. The slight body weight loss, noted in some animals, was considered not toxicologically significant.

No mortality occurred and no symptoms of systemic toxicity were observed in the animals of the main study.

An EC3 value (the estimated test substance concentration that will give a SI =3) of 57.4% was calculated.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Migrated information