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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Results are based on nominal values, and test did not exacty follow existing guidance (1972-study), but followed test method well described and test conditions (e.g. test medium composition) were properly identified.
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not a guideline study but meets generally accepted scientific standards and methodology is well documented and described
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: laboratory clone
- Source: University of Michigan
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 12h +/- 12h
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
Water media type:
Limit test:
Total exposure duration:
48 h
45.2 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
18 +/- 1 °C
Dissolved oxygen:
+/- 9 mg O2/L
not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal/measured test concentrations not reported: geometric series of 5-12 concentrations (not specified for Ba)
Details on test conditions:
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates):2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): not reported

- Source/preparation of dilution water: Lake Superior water; unfiltered water strained through a #20 bolting cloth. Chemical characteristics of Lake Superior water were monitored during the testing period according to procedures outlined by the American Public Health Association and procedures employing atomic absorption spectroscopy.
- Metals: 14 µg Ba/L ; 16 µg Sr/L ; 0.78 µg Zn/L ; <0.5 µg Ni/L ; 1.51 µg Cu/L ; <0.5 µg Co/L ; < 0.01 g Hg/L ; < 0.1 µg Cd/L
- Chloride: 1.22 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 42.3 mg/L as CaCO3
- Ca: 13.7 mg /L
- Mg: 3.12 mg/L
- K: 0.53 mg/L
- Na: 1.13 mg/L

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): complete immobilisation or death

Reference substance (positive control):
48 h
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
14 500 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
Conc. based on:
metal ion -based
Basis for effect:
including immobility
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Results were statistically evaluated with the method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949). LC50 was used for survival and represents an interpolation from three or more partial-effect concentrations.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
The 48h-LC50 for Daphnia magna exposed to barium chloride dihydrate was found to be 14.5 mg Ba/L.
Executive summary:

An acute toxicity test with barium chloride dihydrate to Daphnia magna was realized according to non standardised method with no GLP statement. However the test method is well described and the test conditions were properly identified. This test is part of a serie of similar tests on daphnids performed in 1972 by Biesinger and Christensen. A full study was performed under static conditions. The treatment and control groups had two replicates, each containing 10 daphnids and the test duration was 48 hours. The results are based on nominal concentrations. The 48h-LC50 for Daphnia magna is reported as 14.5 mg Ba/L.

Description of key information

A reliable, nominal 48h-EC50 of 14.5 mg Ba/L has been reported by Biesinger and Christensen (1972), using the cladoceran  Daphnia magna as test organism.   

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
Effect concentration:
14.5 mg/L

Additional information

The reported 48h-LC50 of 14.5 mg Ba/L by Biesinger and Christensen (1972) for Daphnia magna is based on nominal test concentrations, using the soluble barium chloride dihydrate as test substance. The followed test procedure in this 1972 -study was well described and test conditions (e.g. test medium composition) were properly identified.

No reliable data were identified for the marine compartment